Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman was an Indian physicist and Nobel laureate in physics who was recognized for his work on the molecular scattering of light and also for the discovery of “Raman effect” which was named after him.
Sir C.V Raman was born on 7th November 1888 in Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. His father name was R. Chandrasekhar Iyer who was a lecturer in Mathematics and physics and his mother name was Parvati Ammal.
At an early age Raman moved to the city of Vizag, Andhra Pradesh. Studied in St. Aloysius Anglo-Indian High School. In 1902, he entered Presidency College, Chennai and in 1904 he gained his BA with first place and also wins a gold medal in physics. In 1907, he gained his MA with the highest distinctions.
His earliest researches in optics and acoustics. These are the two fields of investigation to which he has dedicated his entire career. Since that time a scientific career did not appear to present the best possibilities. He joined the Indian Finance Department in 1907, from here he got the opportunities for carrying on experimental research in the laboratory of the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science at Calcutta (now called Kolkata).
In 1917, he was offered the newly presented Palit Chair of Physics at Calcutta University. After 15 years, he became Professor at the Indian Institute of Science at Bangalore (1933-48), and since 1948 he is the Director of the Raman Institute of Research at Bangalore, established by him. He is also the Founder of the Indian Journal of Physics in 1926 and he is the editor. He sponsored the establishment of the Indian Academy of Sciences and also served as the President. He was also the President of the Current Science Association, Bangalore which publishes Current Science in India.
Raman contributed an article on the theory of musical instruments to the 8th Volume of the Handbuch der hysik in 1928. In 1929, he published his work on the “Molecular Diffraction of Light”. This was the first series he investigates with his collaborators which ultimately led him to his discovery. On 28th February 1928 of the radiation effect which bears his name “A new radiation” which gained him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1930. The other investigations carried out by him were: the experimental and theoretical studies on diffraction of light by acoustic waves of ultrasonic and hypersonic frequencies which was published in 1934-1942. Those on the effects produced by X-rays on infrared vibrations in crystals exposed to ordinary light. In 1948, through studying the spectroscopic behavior of crystals approached in a new manner fundamental problems of crystal dynamics. Raman’s laboratory has been dealing with the structure and properties of diamond, the structure and optical behavior of numerous lustrous substances.
Among his other interests has been the optics of colloids, electrical and magnetic anisotropy, and the physiology of human vision.
Raman was honoured with large number of honorary doctorates and memberships of scientific societies. He was elected as a “Fellow of the Royal Society” early in his career. He was also knighted in 1929 and awarded the “Bharat Ratna” in 1954. In 1930, he won the “Noble Prize in Physics”. In 1941, he was awarded the “Franklin Medal”. He was also awarded the “Lenin Peace Prize” in 1957.
India celebrates “National Science Day” on 28th February of every year to commemorate the discovery of the “Raman effect” in 1928.Raman was married to Lokasundari Ammal, they had two sons, Chandrasekhar and Radhakrishnan.
He died on 21 November 1970 at the age of 82.